Wednesday, October 5, 2016

The Earth is out of Equilibrium; That is why it is warming

(sigma)(T_e)^4 is the radiation entering the system.  It is the solar constant adjusted by the planet’s albedo (amount of energy from the sun it reflects into space). sigmaT_e^4 is constantly warming the surface, and sigmaT_e^4 is constantly being radiated to the atmosphere and emitted back to the surface meaning sigmaT_e^4 is doubled as the energy per second per square meter warming the surface of the earth. For the temperature of the earth to be constant, as much energy as enters the system must leave the system.  That amount is sigmaT_e^4. This is called an equilibrium state.  If the earth is out of equilibrium, then it is either warming or cooling.  Since satellite measurements measure that the earth is receiving one watt per square meter more than it is losing, this means the earth is out of equilibrium and is warming.  This can be attributed to excess CO2 in the atmosphere, a powerful green house gas that started existing in excess amounts during the beginning of the industrial age.

Let me elaborate:

sigmaT_e^4=(S_0/4)(1-a)

S_0 is the solar constant.  It is the amount of energy per second per square meter (watts per square meter) from the sun at earth orbit.  a is the albedo of the earth which is about 0.3 (that is to say the earth reflects 30% of the radiation from the sun back into space meaning, 1-a = 0.7 is the 70% that reaches the earth.

S_0 is calculated by reducing the energy the sun emits by the inverse square law, so that the radiation that reaches the earth is given by:

(L_0)/4(pi)r^2 = 3.9E26/4(3.141)(1.5E11)^2 = 1,370 watts/meter^2

Where L_0 is the energy per second emitted by the sun which is 3.9E26 Joules per second and r is the earth’s orbital radius which is 1.5E11 meters.

T_e is the annual average temperature of the earth.

sigma is the steffan-boltzmann constant = 5.67E-8 with all that you can determine the annual average temperature of the surface of the earth. you will get a value of about 86 F, (30 C) which is higher than the annual average, which is about 15 C. However in everything said here we have not taken into account cooling by convection (energy lost from evaporization of the ocean to form clouds, and the energy lost when that precipitates and returns to the ocean as rain.)

The calculation must be done in Kelvin.  That can then be converted to Fahrenheit and Celsius.

Twice sigmaT_e^4 is the annual average temperature of the earth (sigmaT_e entering from the sun and sigmaT_e radiated back from the atmosphere) where T_s is the annual average temperature of the surface of the earth, is given by 2sigmaT_e^4. So T_s=2^1/4T_e = 1.189T_e. Finally from above sigmaT_e^4 = (S_0/4)(1-a)=(1370/4)(1-0.3)=239.75 and T_e^4 = 239.75/5.67E-8=4228395062. Take the fourth root of that with your calculator: And T_e=255 degrees Kelvin. Now we have T_e. We said a minute ago that T_s = 1.189T_e so T_s=1.189(255)=303 degrees kelvin. That would be the annual average temperature of the earth without taking convection into account. 

Let's convert that to Celsius: degrees C = degrees K - 273 degrees C =303-273=30 degrees centigrade.

Why do we say sigma T sub e to fourth (sigmaT_e^4) is the watts per square meter of radiation? The answer is if you do an experiment you will find the flux (watts per square meter) of a radiating body are proportional to the fourth power of the temperature and sigma is the constant of proportiionality that allows you to set the two equal to one another.


Wednesday, September 7, 2016

Dance of The Technoids (3D animation on which I play Technoflamenco Guitar)



I seem to be finding what seem to be encoded messages from ETs in our Science and History:

Example:

(a, b, c) is 1, 2, 3 and 97, 98, 99 in ascii computer code, the first three numbers before 100.  One hundred is 100% or, totality.

(a, b, c) corresponds to (i, j, k) the unit vector

(i, j, k) corresponds to (x, y, z) the axis of a rectangular coordinate system.

(i, j, k) has respective values of 9, 10, 11, the first three integers before 12. Twelve is the most abundant number for its size, that is, it is evenly divisible by 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 12 while their sum is greater than 12. In this sense, 12 is an expression of totality.

(x, y, z) has respective ascii values of 120, 121, 122. the first three numbers before 123, taking us back to the 1, 2, 3 of a, b, c.


I wrote the following code in C for Caesar's Cipher, the oldest of ciphers.  If we use standard input of hello, we notice the first letter h, becomes the unit vector < i, j, k>:

I wrote the following code in C for Caesar's Cipher, the oldest of ciphers.  If we use standard input of hello, we notice the first letter h, becomes the unit vector < i, j, k>:

Caesar's Cipher

#include <stdio.h>
#include <cs50.h>
#include <string.h>
int main (int argc, string argv[1])
{
int k = atoi(argv[1]);
if (argc>2 || argc<2)
{
printf("Give me a single string: ");
}
else
{
printf("Give me a word: ");
}
string s = GetString();
for (int i=0, n=strlen(s); i<n; i++)
{
printf("%c", s[i]+k);
}
printf("\n");
}

Running it produces:

jharvard@appliance (~): cd Dropbox
jharvard@appliance (~/Dropbox): make cipher
clang -ggdb3 -O0 -std=c99 -Wall -Werror    cipher.c  -lcs50 -lm -o cipher
jharvard@appliance (~/Dropbox): ./cipher
Segmentation fault (core dumped)
jharvard@appliance (~/Dropbox): ./cipher 1
Give me a word: hello
ifmmp
jharvard@appliance (~/Dropbox): ./cipher 2
Give me a word: hello
jgnnq
jharvard@appliance (~/Dropbox): ./cipher 3
Give me a word: hello
khoor
jharvard@appliance (~/Dropbox): 

I believe i, j, k points to the constellation Aquila, meaning Eagle and that is the origin from which ETs will try to communicate to us.

The Earth Orbital Period:


The Earth circles to Sun once every 365 days.  3 in ascii computer code is the ETX (End of Transmission) key on the keyboard.  6 in ascii computer code is the ACK key on the keyboard and 5 in ascii computer code is the ENQ key on the keyboard meaning Enquiry.  Therefore, I believe we have the message from ETs: "ET X End of Transmission, Acknowledge Enquiry”.

ET Decryption 03

We consider the binary nibble:

(0110)

Now scroll left:

(1100)

Scroll left again:

(1000)

This gives:

0110 1100 1000

The 0110 is six in binary (110)
The 1100 is 12 in binary
The 1000 is 8

We have:

6, 12, 8

These three numbers divide nicely into the 360 degrees of a circle:

360/6 = 60 = equilateral triangle
360/12 = 30 = angle in 30 60 90 triangle for determining value trig functions
360/8 = 45 = angle in 45 45 90 triangle for determining trig functions

Also:

12/2 = 6     8/2 = 4   6/2 = 3

These are the number of sides in the three regular tessellators. 

But we take the 3, the 6, and the 4 and write 364.

364 ~ 365 = number of days in a year.



Is this a message from ETs? 

ET Decryption 04

Noticing that nine-fifths (9/5) is the ratio of the molar mass of gold (Au) to silver (Ag) and in the ratio of the solar radius (R) to the lunar orbital radius (r), that is:

Au/Ag = R/r

While the sun is gold in color and the moon is silver in color, I wrote at some point:

We have said that the three sets of characters (a, b, c), (i, j, k), (x, y, z) are at the basis of mathematics and that applying them to caesar’s cipher we find they are intimately connected with artificial intelligence and computer science.  We further noted that this was appropriate because there are only two vowels in these sets, and that they are a and i, the abbreviation for artificial intelligence (AI).  I now notice it goes further.  Clearly at the crux of our work is nine-fifths.  So we ask, is his nine-fifths connected with important characters as well pointing to computer science.  It is.  The fifth letter in the alphabet is e, and the ninth letter is i.  Electronic devices and applications are more often than anything else described with e and i:

ebook
ibook
email
ipad
iphone


And the list goes on.

Saturday, June 25, 2016

Is The Fate of Humans Really Connected To ETs?

Bob Dean, Father of UFO studies, said he thinks ETs had a hand in our being here and, seems to imply they are concerned about what becomes of us, that, after 5 million years of evolution, they are not going to let us go extinct now.  Seems to imply their fate is intertwined with ours.  I would say they did not have a hand in out being here, any more than we had a hand in their being here, that, we all came into existence by way of the same process.  Further, if our idiocy brings about our own extinction, I don’t think it will bring about the end of their success if they are intelligent.  Conclusion is that they have no bearing on whether or not we are successful.

H.G. Wells writes, circa 1950: “Our universe is not merely bankrupt; their remains no dividend at all; it has not simply liquidated; it is going clean out of existence, leaving not a wrack behind. The attempt to trace a pattern of any sort is absolutely futile.”

I would take issue with the idea here that the universe is bankrupt.  It may be that the earth no longer has potential, but I don’t think it means that is necessarily true of everywhere in the Universe.  I would agree with his following passage, however:


“The writer sees the world as devoid of recuperative power.  In the past he has liked to think that Man could pull out of his entanglements and start a new creative phase of human living.  In the face of our universal inadequacy, that optimism has given place to a stoical cynicism.  The old men for the most part behave meanly and disgustingly, and the young are spasmodic, foolish and all too easily mislead.  Man must go steeply up or down and the odds seem to be all in favour of his going down and out.  If he goes up, then so great is the adaptation demanded of him that he must cease to be a man.  Ordinary man is at the end of his tether.”